Whole House Well Water Filtration System Diagram

This page may contain affiliate links. If you buy a product or service through such a link we earn a commission at no extra cost to you. Learn more.

Understanding how a well water filtration system works in detail is important before committing to any solution on the market.

Unfortunately, it can be hard to grasp the general idea behind these setups. Most guides out there focus on the specific functionality of individual filtration steps.

If you’re preparing to filter the well water in your home, you should have a good idea of how the whole setup works.

Thus, make sure to check our well water filtration system diagram below!

Whole House Well Water Filtration System Diagram

well water filtration system diagram

How Does the Whole Well Water System Work?

Here is a brief overview of how a typical well water extraction setup works. Note that your system might not have all of these components.


The modern well is quite different from classic ones used throughout history. Wells are dug at a depth of around 100–800 ft, depending on the availability of water and extraction methods. The well is surrounded by casing which isolates it from the surrounding earth, typically made of metal, PVC, or concrete.

Well Screen

The well screen separates the well from the earth while still allowing water to pass through and enter the well. Screens are typically not used in wells drilled through solid materials like rock.

Well Pump

The well pump is the main active component of a well and it’s what does the actual work of extracting water. Some pumps are simple, only drawing water from the source but not pushing it any further. Others use pressure to force water up the plumbing and towards your home. With deeper wells, an active pump is usually required.

Pressure Tank

A pressure tank allows you to store well water and have it available with sufficient pressure at any time. It typically works through the use of an internal diaphragm which separates water from air. When water is pushed into the tank, this compresses the air. Later, when you want to dispense water, the air pushes back on the water and forces it through your plumbing.

Pressure tanks are usually controlled by an automated switch which builds up pressure when it falls beneath a certain level.


Pre-filtration is a good idea when dealing with well water that’s heavily contaminated by larger particles. A sediment pre-filter can remove various contaminants like dirt, clay, sand, and more. Using a pre-filter is generally recommended when extracting well water, even when the well is not drilled into sand or other similar materials.

Main Filtration

The main well water filtration system may feature one or more filtering stages. Multi-stage filters are recommended when dealing with a wide range of contaminants which may not be targeted effectively enough by a single filtration method.

Choosing the correct setup requires testing – otherwise you won’t know what contaminants you’re dealing with exactly.

Water Softener

A water softener is optional, but recommended when dealing with hard well water. It removes minerals, mainly calcium. This can help extend the lifespan of appliances and prevent nasty deposits from making their way into your home.

UV Purification

UV purification is another often optional well water treatment step. It’s recommended in cases where the water is contaminated with bacteria or other living organisms.

UV water purification is also something that requires the use of a pre-filter in order to work effectively. Otherwise, particles can prevent the UV light from hitting all microorganisms and may decrease the efficiency of the system.

Well with Well Cap

What Contaminants Does a Well Water Filter System Remove?

Well water filtration can target many different types of contaminants. This includes:

  • Microorganisms
  • Heavy metals like iron
  • Sulfur
  • Chemicals
  • Suspended particles

There are specific types of filters for each of those categories, as well as some that are designed to capture and remove a broader range of contaminants. Again, the best way to keep your well water clean and fresh is to use a combination of several filter types, such as:

  • Activated carbon
  • Reverse osmosis
  • UV purification
  • Ion exchange

The ideal combination depends on the types of contaminants you’re dealing with specifically. In order to learn more, you will want to get your water tested in a laboratory. This doesn’t cost much and you should have your results pretty quickly.

If you have any questions about our residential well water filtration system diagram please don’t hesitate to leave a comment below!

About the Author Gene Fitzgerald

Gene Fitzgerald is one of the founders of BOS and currently head of content creation. She has 8+ years of experience as a water treatment specialist under her belt making her our senior scientist. Outside of BOS, Gene loves reading books on philosophy & social issues, making music, and hiking.
Learn more about .


Information provided on BOS is for educational purposes only. The products and services we review may not be right for your individual circumstances.
We adhere to strict editorial guidelines. Rest assured, the opinions expressed have not been provided, reviewed, or otherwise endorsed by our partners – they are unbiased, independent, and the author’s alone. Our licensed experts fact-check all content for accuracy. It is accurate as of the date posted and to the best of our knowledge.

Leave a Comment:

Peter Forova says April 13, 2023

Need more advice on well water filtration & treatment

    Gene says April 14, 2023

    Hi Peter,
    Could you specify your question, please?

Add Your Reply